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For example, someone might claim "the earth is younger than many scientists state, and in fact was created to as though it was older through deceptive fossils etc.” This is a claim that is unfalsifiable because it is a theory that can never be shown to be false.
If you were to present such a person with fossils, geological data or arguments about the nature of compounds in the ozone, they could refute the argument by saying that your evidence was fabricated to appeared that way, and isn’t valid.
The bucket theory of mind, as naively believed by many people, supposes, according to Popper, that “our mind is a bucket which is originally empty, or more or less so, and into this bucket material enters through our senses … 62), and in the case of the girl in the buckets of other people. If we want to know, we simply have to collect what there is.
However, using the photographic analogy again, light that passes the lens of a camera and touches the film or sensor, does not simply makes an image of the world as it is.
While such studies and ideas are not falsifiable, most would agree that they are scientific because they significantly advance human knowledge.
Popper had and still has his fair share of critics, and the question of how to demarcate legitimate scientific enquiry can get very convoluted.
But Einstein's theory holds true in a superset of the conditions in which Newton's theory holds, so according to the principle of Occam's Razor, Einstein's theory is preferred.
Thus, falsifiability is not a simple black and white matter.
However, Einstein's theory makes falsifiable predictions that are different from predictions made by Newton's theory, for example concerning the precession of the orbit of Mercury, and gravitational lensing of light.
In non-extreme situations Einstein's and Newton's theories make the same predictions, so they are both correct.
It is only the minimum trait required of a claim that allows it to be engaged with in a scientific manner – a dividing line between what is considered science and what isn’t.
Another important point is that falsifiability is not any claim that has yet to be proven true.